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Types of the wire drawing dies

The wire drawing can be divided into alloy steel, carbide, ND, PCD and CVD, according to different materials.
Alloy steel dies were the early materials. Carbon and alloy tool steel are the main materials for alloy steel dies. However, they are quickly eliminated due to alloy steel dies’ poor hardness and wear resistance.
Carbide dies are made of tungsten carbide. It belongs to the tungsten cobalt alloy, and its main components are tungsten carbide and cobalt. Tungsten carbide is the “skeleton” of the alloy, which mainly plays a hard and wear-resistant role; Cobalt is a bonded metal and is a source of alloy toughness. Therefore, compared with alloy steel dies, carbide dies have the following characteristics: high wear resistance, good polishability, small adhesion, small coefficient of friction, low energy consumption, and high corrosion resistance; these characteristics make carbide drawing dies have a wide range of processing adaptability, becoming the most widely used drawing dies.
Natural diamond is an allotrope of carbon; the characteristics of ND dies are high hardness and good wear resistance. However, natural diamonds are brittle and difficult to process and are generally used to manufacture drawing dies with a diameter of less than 1.2 mm. In addition, natural diamonds are expensive and scarce.
Polycrystalline diamond is polymerized under high temperature and pressure conditions by carefully selecting a single crystal of synthetic diamond with a small amount of silicon, titanium and other binders. Polycrystalline diamond has high hardness and good wear resistance; compared with other materials, it has unique advantages. Compared with carbide dies, the tensile strength of PCD dies is only 70 % of the commonly used cemented carbide, but it is 250% harder than cemented carbide, so PCD dies have more advantages than carbide dies. The PCD dies with good wear resistance, uniform internal hole wear, strong impact resistance, and high drawing efficiency, and the price is much cheaper than natural diamond dies. Therefore, PCD dies are widely used in the drawing industry.

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